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Historical Overview

This information originates from the Historic Resources Inventory Historic Cannon's Addition
For further information:
Spokane Historic Preservation Office
City Hall Room 614
808 West Spokane Falls Boulevard
Spokane, Washington 99201
(509)625-6983
(509)625-6817
spokanecity.org/historic
 


A.M. CANNON  - 1890-1900  -  1900-1915  -  Commerce  -  Schools  -  Churches  -  Conclusion


A.M. CANNON

Anthony McCue Cannon arrived in Spokane Falls on April 24, 1878 with his partner, J.J.
Browne. With an initial investment of $50.00 down on a $3000 mortgage, Browne and Cannon
acquired one-half interest in James Glover's town site. By 1890 Cannon and Browne were both
millionaires and hailed as civic leaders. Five years later Cannon died alone and penniless in New
York City, ostracized by the town he helped to build.

Cannon launched his meteoric business career by opening the first bank in Spokane Falls in 1879.
By the time the railroad arrived in 1881, he had built a STROM Second Empire style mansion
with parquet floors, tapestries, and beveled windows. Heated by a central heating system and
equipped with bathtubs, the house was located on Third between Cedar and Walnut. Two
years later in July of 1883, Cannon platted the Addition that bears his name to this day.

In 1885 Cannon was elected Mayor of Spokane Falls, serving in that capacity for two years.
From 1885 to 1893, Cannon embarked on numerous business ventures, including the Spokane
Fails Water Power Company. He served as President of the Spokane Palouse Railway,
organized a horse drawn streetcar railway with Browne, founded the Bank of Palouse City,
served as director of the Hypotheek Bank, and constructed the Marble Bank located at
Riverside and Wall (razed in 1954.)

One of Cannon's proudest accomplishments was his participation in the construction of the
Auditorium, Spokane Falls' premier opera house. Cannon and partner J.J. Browne desired a
showplace to surpass all others. After the Fire of 1889, they instructed a New York architect to
build a stage 61 feet wide and 46 feet deep -- the largest stage in the world at the time.

Cannon's spectacular success collapsed with the Panic of 1893. Overextended fiscally and
mortgaged to the hilt, the Northwestern and Pacific Hypotheek Bank seized most of his
belongings and dismissed him from his post as Director. Along with many others, Cannon was
virtually without resources; his wife, Jennie, died that same year. Four months after her death,
Cannon shocked the City when he married a young widow with three children. Both friends and
family were appalled, and he was ostracized by old acquaintances.

In an attempt to rekindle his lost fortune, Cannon sailed for South America to look into possible
mining and railroad investments. During the return trip home, he was found dead in his New
York hotel room on April 6, 1895.

Today the Cannon family name remains prominent in Spokane street and park names, including
A.M. Cannon Park on Mission Avenue. But it is Cannon's Addition which perhaps best reflects
the significance of Anthony McCue Cannon's role in Spokane's early development.

1890-1900

During this decade of early growth in Spokane, elegant houses were constructed in Browne's
Addition and Cannon's Addition. Stylistically, residences constructed during this time frame
were for the most part Queen Anne, Tudor, and vernacular. Following the devastating fire of
1889 that consumed Spokane's urban core, the City began the difficult task of rebuilding. This
attracted many architects to Spokane who saw a golden opportunity to obtain commissions.
Loren L. Rand, Albert Held, Willis Ritchie, Karl Malmgren, Kirtland Cutter, Julius Zittei,
Herman Preusse and W.W. Hyslop all migrated to Spokane around this time to seek their
fortune. These architects would play a vital role in designing Spokane's skyline and
neighborhoods; this was especially true for neighborhoods like Corbin Park, Cannon's and
Browne's Addition, and the Marycliff-Cliff Park area.

Third, Fourth and Fifth Avenues were the first streets in Cannon's Addition to be developed.
This occurred a short time after A.M. Cannon's death in 1895. Unusual for Spokane is the
Gothic - influenced Chickering residence at W. 2003 Fourth Avenue. It was constructed in 1896
for J.D. Chickering, wholesale manager for the Holley-Mason Company. This house exhibits
three steeply pitched gabled dormers and a side gable roof. The McClintock residence located
at W. 2109 Fourth was designed by Kirtland Cutter in 1899 for Harvey McClintock owner of
McClintock and Trunkey Wholesale Grocery Co. This Queen Anne house has an offset turret
with a front and side gable roof. The circular wrap-around veranda has been partially enclosed.
The J.O. Bender house at S. 428 Hemlock is an excellent example of a Tudor Style residence.
Constructed in 1899, this large house displays decorative vergeboard, a low-pitched gable
roof line, half- timbering and shingle cladding, and a large full width veranda. The Essig house
located W. 1227 Fifth on the lower South Hill, just outside Cannon's Addition was originally
erected in 1890. In 1896 Dr. Fred Essig remodeled, this house to its present form. Two steeply
pitched turrets, a wrap-around veranda, two gabled dormers an eyebrow dormer all help to
embellish Dr. Essig's Queen Anne residence. Another fine Queen Anne residence situated on the
outskirts of Cannon's Addition is the Leo Long House, built in 1899 at W. 1305 5th. Designed
by Albert Held, this 20-room house is clad with red brick, sandstone and stucco. Two-story
turrets flank the main facade on either side, and a prominent carriage house clad with matching
materials is located just west of the main house.

From 1890 to 1900 Browne's Addition and the northern portion of Cannon's Addition evolved
into an exclusive area where prominent Spokane citizens had their residences constructed. By
the turn of the century, Cannon's Addition began to witness tremendous growth, as the area
changed into an upwardly middle class residential neighborhood.

From 1900 to 1915 Spokane would experience its greatest population influx, growing from a
city of 30,000 to over 100,000. It was during this period that Cannon's Addition would be
aggressively developed along with many other areas of Spokane.

1900-1915

Residences constructed during this time ranged from American Foursquare, Tudor Revival and
Neoclassical homes to more modest Craftsman dwellings and bungalows, reflecting the wide
diversity of styles popular around the turn of the century. Once again Spokane's foremost
architects were commissioned to build new residences in Cannon's Addition.

The American Foursquare is a style frequently seen throughout the Cannon's Addition
neighborhood, with its characteristic use of cube like massing and massive hipped roofs often
capped with hipped dormers. These houses are normally distinguished by full width verandas
accentuated by square or round supports which usually boast balustrade railing. The popular
style proliferated during the period from 1900 to 1915, and was a favorite among the rapidly
growing middle class. Within Cannon's Addition, prime examples of the American Foursquare
include W. 1817 and W. 1903 9th, both designed by Julius Zittel.2

Almost as common in Cannon's Addition are superb examples of the Craftsman style. This style,
which first gained attention in southern California at the turn of the century, was inspired by
such proponents as Gustav Stickley and the Greene brothers. Once again, well-to-do
Spokanites hired accomplished local architects to design their homes utilizing the finest of
materials and decorative techniques.

In Spokane the heyday of the Craftsman Style dates from ca. 1905 to 1915; the majority of these
houses in Cannon's Addition were constructed between 1907 and 1912. Frequently used in
combination with other styles in the neighborhood, the Craftsman influence depicts a building
trend that rejected cookie cutter construction and stressed individual craftsmanship and quality
workmanship.

In 1906 Spokane financier Alfred Coolidge hired John K. Dow to design the Craftsman-
influenced residence at W. 1405 9th. Clad with blonde brick on the main floor and stucco
above, this multi-gabled residence exhibits decorative trusswork, vergeboard, and a side
pergola. Known as the Coolidge-Rising House, the residence is individually listed in the
National Register of Historic Places.

At W. 1911 8th, the Kane Residence provides an excellent example of the use of native materials
encouraged by the Craftsman movement. Here basalt rock becomes a primary structural and
decorative element in a simple hipped roof bungalow design reminiscent of the work of noted
Spokane architect W.W. Hyslop. Hyslop's distinctive residential designs provided a unique
contribution to Spokane's prominent turn-of-the-century neighborhoods, and he created a
number of Craftsman-influenced homes in the area. Among these are W.2026 9th, and the
unusual Markham House at W. 2001 8th. Executed in a predominately Tudor Revival style, the
1907 Markham House features a steeply pitched gabled roofline with decorative half timbering.
The exposed rafter ends, as well as the use of varied surface materials ranging from shingle
cladding to clinker brick and native basalt, reveal Craftsman sources. The Roman brick reflects
a later alteration of the residence.

Also typical of this appealing style is the Charles Jeffries House, located at W. 1733 14th.
Constructed in 1910, this Craftsman residence displays a low sloping hipped roof with
overhanging eaves, shingle cladding, a full-width veranda, clinker brick chimney and a raised
basalt foundation.

A variety of other styles were prevalent in the neighborhood during its formative years.
Particularly impressive are the classically inspired mansions which still dot these streets capes.
W. 1406 9th displays a two-story Neoclassical portico. Greek Ionic capitals top the massive
columns which support the pediments above. Although the roof line has been altered, W. 1406
9th presents an especially interesting testament to the popularity of classical elements in the early
years of this century. It was designed by architect Loren L. Rand, who is perhaps best known
for the many educational buildings he designed in Spokane, including Lewis and Clark High
School .

Colonial Revival details are also common in Cannon's Addition, often combined with such styles
as the American Foursquare. Designed by C.Z. Hubbell, W. 1725 9th features Ionic pilasters,
Palladian window motifs, dentil molding and modillion blocks, all excellent examples of this
stylistic influence.

A variety of Dutch Colonial Revival buildings also remain in evidence, exhibiting the prominent
gambrel roofline so indicative of the style. W. 1705 I0th, designed by J.K. Dow, and W. 1909
9th all reflect this stylistic direction. It is, however, the Gordon House, located at W. 1323 8th,
just outside of Cannon's Addition, which presents the most impressive -- and eclectic --
expression of the style.

Designed by John K. Dow, architect of such landmarks as the Empire State Building, the Hutton
Building and Grace Baptist Church, the Gordon House combines a Dutch Colonial Revival
roofline with a massive crenelated stone turret and arched entryway. Decorative shingles,
swags, and assorted detailing lend a highly eclectic air to this stately residence.

Also worthy of note in Cannon's Addition are the houses which reflect a Mission Revival
influence. The Mission Revival style is generally characterized by the distinctive shape of
dormer or roof parapets, stucco wall surfacing and widely overhanging eaves. Neighborhood
examples include the Moody House located at S. 626 Cedar, and the O'Bradley Residence at W.
1703 9th. Contractor A.L. Lundquist was responsible for constructing a vast number of South
Hill residences that reflected a Mission Revival influence.

Finally, in examining the architectural composition of Cannon's Addition, it is essential to note
the distinctive array of vernacular dwellings located therein. Most popular are residences with
prominent gable fronts, often projecting above a fUll-width porch. A contemporary of the more
high style designs already discussed, this vernacular bungalow style is especially prevalent along
1 11th Avenue, marking a slight change in resident composition and economic status.

A good example of this style is the Gory House at W. 1713 11th. The trademark front gable
roof with shingle cladding at the peak projects over a full width porch. The Handley House at
W. 1624 Lithe and the Alexander-Mitchem House at W. 1123 9th provide further testament to
the popularity of this mode. Particularly evident among houses built between 1900 and 1915,
this vernacular style is indicative of the swelling numbers in Spokane's middle class population in
the initial decades of this century.

Construction after 1920 in Cannon's Addition has been minimal. Only a few houses post-date
the neighborhood's primary period of significance from 1900-1925. Although several larger
apartment complexes now spot the neighborhood, the character of its streetscapes remains well-
maintained and virtually intact. Such additions as contemporary siding materials and porch
enclosures occasionally appear within neighborhood boundaries; and yet, even these homes
continue to contribute to the overall character and ambiance of Cannon's Addition. The
cohesiveness and unique attributes of this neighborhood are well evidenced by its excellent
representation of turn-of-the-century residential building styles and limited intrusions.

Schools

When Irving Elementary School was first constructed in 1890, Cannon's Addition consisted of a
handful of large residences concentrated on 4th, 5th, and 6th Avenues. Located at W. 1716 7th
Avenue, the two-story, Romanesque-influenced building served Cannon's Addition until its
demise in 1973. With the 1972 school bond failure Irving Elementary School was one of eight
public schools closed by District 81, the following year Irving was demolished after 83 years of
service. At the time of its destruction, lnving Elementary had been in continuous use longer than
any school building in the City's history.

Davis Elementary School for the hearing impaired was constructed in 1954 and was closed 20
years later in 1974. Located across the street from Irving Elementary at W. 1723 7th, its
association with its neighbor spanned back to 1934 when classes for deaf children were held in
two portables on the grounds of Irving Elementary. Children from both Irving and Davis were
encouraged to play together and learn from each other. The closure of Irving ended this special
relationship between the two schools. A year after the destruction of Irving Elementary, Davis
Elementary School was closed and the program for hearing impaired children was relocated to
Madison Elementary School at W. 319 Nebraska.

Situated outside the boundaries of Cannon's Addition, Lewis and Clark High School has been
nonetheless a landmark on the lower South Hill for over 82 years. Constructed in 1911 to
replace South Central High School, destroyed by fire the previous year, the new school was
designed by L.L. Rand. It was dedicated on April 8, 1911 by President Theodore Roosevelt.
Architect Rand utilized a Collegiate Gothic style as demonstrated by the Gothic arched
entrances, the Gothic windows directly above the main entry and a generous use of cream terra
cotta. Also of note are the ornamental terra-cotta gargoyles and reliefs that accentuate the
central tower. Today Lewis and Clark continues to serve the residents of Cannon's Addition.

Commerce

Due to its close proximity, residents of Cannon's Addition have always been able to utilize
downtown Spokane to satisfjr their shopping needs. This was especially advantageous during
the first half of this century when the Central Business District was the main shopping area in the
Inland Northwest. This reliance on downtown diminished the need for local neighborhood
stores. As a result, only a few such facilities remain evident in the area.

Olaf Hammerlund had a two-story brick grocery store constructed in 1914. Located at S. 902
Monroe the Hammerlund family lived in and operated their grocery business out of this location
until 1939. In 1940 Stejer's Grocery Store was at this site; in 1949 the Crystal Laundry
purchased the building and remodeled it. The second story is the only visible reminder of
Hammerlund's original building. In 1974 Jones Pharmacy, the current owner, located here.

William Beyer commissioned L.R. Stritesky and F. P. Rooney to design a grocery store in 1911.
This Italianate influenced store features a Palladian window leading to a second floor balcony.
Blonde brick quoins, pilasters with Corinthian capitals and arched windows on the street level
further distinguish this building. The main floor was used as a grocery store, while Beyer lived
on the second level. It was no longer used as a grocery store after Beyer sold the building in
1941 to Laurence Mauser.

Churches

The churches that originally served the early residents of Cannon's and Browne's Addition fall
outside of the current neighborhood boundaries. Temple Emanu-el, located at Eighth and Cedar
(just north of the Ninth Avenue Historic District), is the sole exception.

The Temple Emanu-el is situated in the heart of Cannon's Addition. Constructed in 1921, it was
originally used as a Jewish Temple, serving a large segment of the community's Jewish
population. Designed by the architectural firm of Whitehorse and Price, this Neoclassical
building features large columns with Corinthian capitals supporting a massive gabled pediment.
The Plymouth Congregational Church purchased the building in 1967; its congregation
continues to use this stately facility today.

Another noteworthy church in the vicinity of Cannon's Addition is the sandstone clad First
Presbyterian Church located at Fourth Avenue and Cedar Street. Completed in 1909, this
Gothic Revival style church was designed by LL.. And. Large towers can be seen on the north
and south facades, while smaller turrets rise on the east and west. Gothic arches frame the
windows, which boast large stained glass panels.

Originally established as early as 1882, the First Baptist Church, located at Second Avenue and
Lincoln Street, was constructed in 1928-29. Many Spokane residents, including those from
Cannon's Addition, attended services at First Baptist. This large church is constructed of brown
brick with terra cotta details. The friezes are embellished with dove and grape motifs.

Another major church in the area was Our Lady of Lourdes Cathedral, home of the
neighborhood's Catholic community. Located at W. 1103 Riverside, Our Lady of Lourdes was
completed in 1907, as designed by the architectural firm of Peruse and Zither. This large
Romanesque Revival style church was constructed in a cruciform plan, and features massive
arched entryways. Two large bell towers flank the entrances on the north facade.
With the exception of Temple Enamel, all of the churches in the area fall outside of current
neighborhood boundaries. Nonetheless, the residents of Cannon's Addition enjoyed a strong
religious tradition, and area churches represented a variety of denominations.

Conclusion

The construction of Interstate 90 in 1965-71 destroyed numerous area houses, churches, stores
and parks. Despite the significant impact of this event, Cannon's Addition today remains an
intriguing amalgam of architectural tastes and styles in a residential setting which continues to
cater to a wide variety of economic backgrounds. In this diversity lies much of the
neighborhood's strength, contributing to the overall character and distinctive qualities of the
area. Also significant is the Ninth Avenue Historic District, which encompasses portions of
Eighth, Ninth, Tenth and Eleventh Avenues, in the heart of Cannon's Addition. The Ninth
Avenue District has recently been chosen for inclusion in the National Register of Historic
Places. With its tree-lined avenues and high degree of architectural integrity, Cannon's Addition
provides a cohesive testament to the legacy of A.M. Cannon and to early twentieth century
residential development efforts on Spokane's lower South Hill.